Warren,C.R., Rivera,A. & Post,A. (1997) : "Greatest Holocene Advance of Glaciar Pío XI, Chilean Patagonia: Possible causes" Annals of Glaciology, 24:11-15.

Glaciar Pío XI (or Glaciar Brüggen) may be the only glacier in the world currently at its Neoglacial maximum. During the 20th century, most glaciers in Patagonia have consistently retreated, whereas Glaciar Pio XI has advanced almost 10 km, most recently at rates of ≤ 1.5 m d-1. This advance cann...


Casassa, G., Brecher, H., Rivera, A. and Aniya, M. (1997) : "A Century-long Recession Record of Glaciar O'Higgins, Chilean Patagonia" Annals of Glaciology, 24:106-110.

Most glaciers in Patagonia are retreating rapidly. Glaciar O'Higgins, a freshwater calving glacier, has experienced the largest retreat rate of all, as measured from 1945 to 1986 (Aniya and others, 1992). Based on historical maps, early exploration reports and recent aerial photography, the front...


Rivera,A., Lange,H., Aravena,J. & Casassa,G. (1997) : "The 20th Century Advance of Glaciar Pío XI, Southern Patagonia Icefield" Annals of Glaciology, 24:66-71.

Glaciar Pio XI, the largest glacier in South America, has experienced an advance during th 20th century, unlike virtually all other glaciers in Patagonia, which are retreating rapidly. Climatological records of the last 80 years are analyzed together with ice-velocity and meteorological measureme...


Warren, C., Glasser N., Harrison S., Winchester V., Kerr A. and Rivera A. (1995) : "Characteristics of tide-water calving at Glaciar San Rafael, Chile" Journal of Glaciology, 41(138), 273-289.

Glacial calving is a poorly understood process. This study tests the influence of local environmental variables on the magnitude and frecuency distributions of calving behaviour at Glaciar San Rafael, Chile. Near the terminus of the glacier, surface speeds average 17 m d-1 in summer and calving e...


Warren, C. and Rivera, A. (1994) : "Non-linear climatic response of calving glaciers: A case study of PIO XI Glacier, Chilean Patagonia" Revista chilena de Historia Natural, 67:385 - 394, 1994.

Pio XI (or Brüggen) Glacier is probably the only glacier in the world currently at its Neoglacial maximum. Its recent fluctuations provide a striking example of non-climatic glacier behaviour. A rapid 3km advance in the 1920s was followed by retreat in the 1930s. Between 1945 and 1983 the glacier...


Rivera, A. (1992) : "El Glaciar Pío XI: Avances y Retrocesos, el impacto sobre su entorno durante el presente siglo" Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis, 36: 33 - 62.

El glaciar Pío XI se caracteriza por ser temperado, de gran dinámica y rodeado de un ecotono de gran biodiversidad. Al evaluar las fluctuaciones de su lengua terminal a nivel histórico se constata que tuvo un fuerte y repentino avance entre 1926 y 1928, embalsando el valle del Río Greve. Posterio...


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